آینده پژوهی

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Future study and Strategic Management and their relationship with the Iran’s 2025 Perspective Document
Saeed Jelodarian Bidgoli*
Master of Management, Department of Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Iran & Invited Teacher, Department of Management, Aran and Bidgol Payame Noor University, Iran
saeed.jelodarian@yahoo.com
Ali Sarrafkia
Masters student of Health Technology Assessment, Department of Public Health, Tehran, University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Mohammad Mohammadi Poor
Master of Management, Department of Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Iran
Yousef Mohammadimoghadam
Associate professor, Department of Amin Police University, Iran
Corresponding Author: saeed.jelodarian@yahoo.com
Abstract
In today’s world that changes are rapid and complex, for the survival of organizations, foresight and planning based on the future are required. Islamic Republic of Iran, also based on the objectives that thinks for itself, and seeing the distant horizon for the country has prepared the strategy document of Iran’s 2025 perspective, and shows its goals and future at the 20-year horizon, and then all organizations of the country require to have a forward-looking planning in consistent and in line with the strategy document in order to the objectives of the perspective document be achieved on time. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between future study and strategic planning in the form of strategic management in the strategy document of Iran’s 2025 perspective. The method is just a library. The findings suggest that the debates of future study and strategic management speak about the future. Although there are differences between the two issues, but strategic management by using of foresight and futures studies, plans, implements and monitors the strategies and then organizations reach to their long-term goals that are expected in the future.
Keywords: foresight, Future study, planning, strategic management, Iran’s 2025 perspective document.
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Introduction
When talking about issues such as development, improvement, development, productivity, a realistic, coherent and efficient planning should be considered. For this purpose a good and forward-looking vision is required. Foresight requires the assumption that future is not formed only based on unpredictable events and has special rules. In this case, foresight has a meaning based on future study. In this case, the future is made up of a number of factors, that people have the ability to identify the influential factors, and by controlling and influencing them, desirable future is formed. The basic assumption in future study is that the future is affected by today’s actions and is not definite and predetermined. (Kashani, 2013)
Problem statement
Futurists draw three types of future: the possible future, the probable future and the desirable future. They seek to achieve to the desirable future, and believe to Identifying and building the future. Researchers of strategic area are also looking to achieve to the desirable future. But is the kind of effort of the two groups same? What are the similarities and differences between them?
Futurists are key players in the process of creating national, partial and organizational perspectives (Assarian Nejad, 2007). Is Iran’s 2025 perspective document, the desirable future and strategic planning based on a forward-looking vision or an image of a desirable and ideal future?
An overview of Strategic Management topics:
Knowledge-based era in which strategic insight and knowledge is as the most important asset of organizations requires different management approach for the problems of organization and staffs (Yar Mohammad Zadeh, Siadat and Bakhtiar Nasr Abadi, 2010). Strategic management is the area of management science which deals with a series of decisions and activities influencing the selection and implementation of strategies designed to achieve the organization’s objectives (Moslehshirazi and Haidari, 2003). In other words, strategic management is an array of decisions and actions (processes) and leads to development of effective perspective to achieve organizational goals (Thibodeaux & Favilla, 1996).
The main subject of the strategic management process is designing competitive strategies, which will enable the company to find a suitable position in the industry and to deal with other organizations; and identifying the position that the company is going to reach in the future (Nabizadeh Bahnamiri, 2012). In fact, the purpose of strategic management is helping the organizations to gain competitive advantage (Rezaeian, 2009).
Strategic Management allows the organization that in a creative and innovative way, in the face with situations and issues, not only does not act passively, but controls the future (David, 1999). In other words, strategic management defines the usable field of organization (Nabizadeh Bahnamiri, 2012). Strategic Management also by setting long-term goals and
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objectives and revealing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, controls the future. (Rahnama et al., 2012)
Many patterns by the different Pundits in the field of strategic management are provided. Of course, the main idea of most of these comments and patterns is identical in relation to strategic management and in some elements and stages or how talk about them, differences are observed. Figure 1 shows a normative model of strategic management that mainly by strategic designers to review the empirical perceptions exactly and simultaneously is used (Dorri and Hakkak, 2010). At the most times, theoreticians in describing the strategic management processes suport the normative attitudes that are formed of the three stages include: formulation, implementation and evaluation (Hamresh, 1986 and Preble, 1992; Dorri and Hakkak, 2010). These stages are three interdependent parts of a comprehensive model of strategic management that each one without the other will not be effective, but the combination of these three parts would be effective (Violin and Hunger, 2001; Aerabi and Chavoshi, 2010; Chavoshi, 2010).
Figure 1. The classic model of strategic management. Source: Picken and Des, strategic management, 1977 and Preble, 1992 (Chavoshi, 2010)
Another pattern that has great reputation is David model which, in general, follows the normative model. This pattern indicates that strategic management has three main stages include: formulation, implementation and evaluation of strategy. The process of strategic management begins with determining the mission and moves toward performance evaluation. This process is a dynamic and continuous process that change in each of the parts of the pattern will cause changes in the other parts, and the strategic management process does not end. (Rahnama et al., 2012)
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Figure 2. A Comprehensive Model of Strategic Management. Source: (David, 1999)
In the stage ” Formulation of strategy” or” Planning the strategy ” at the first the mission of the organization is determined and then “Opportunities” and “Threats” of surrounding of organization are identified, then outside and inside of the organization are checked and “Strength” and “Weakness” of the organization are identified, then the organization’s long-term goals are set, and finally, by considering various strategies, the best goal is selected. In formulation of strategy some issues are considered such as in what area the organization intends to have activity, and what activities would be removed, what is the method of allocation of resources, decision-making about the expansion or diversification of its activities and decision-making about target markets and merge or partner with other organizations, and remain safe way of jerking rival organizations, and various other issues (David, 1999).
Planning the strategy is the first and important stage of strategic management, because without accurate ad correct formulation of strategies, implementation and evaluation can not be done properly.
Specifications of strategic planning system include: (Abbasi and Fathollahi Rod, 2009)
Feature
Description
Introversion
A strong focus on the organization’s history, current position, past performance, and analyze the strengths and weaknesses
Extraversion
The ability to obtain timely and reliable research data to identify environmental opportunities and threats
Functional integration
The consistency between areas of different tasks with a shared vision that will align the requirements of different tasks with management overview
Participation of key individuals
The amount of Participation and involvement of senior management, board members and line and staff managers in the planning process
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Using analytical techniques
The amount of confidence in the appropriate techniques to solve problems in strategic planning structure
Creativity in planning
The amount of focus of planning efforts on new ways of thinking
Focusing on control
The amount of emphasis on planning as a tool for organizational control
Source: Journal of Business Strategics, 1996, vol.13
The traps that are in the way of planning the strategy can be categorized into two general categories, failures of substance and failures of process.
۱٫ Failures of substance: in the absence of sufficient attention to the major elements of strategic planning, such as analysis of the organization’s mission and purpose, core values and organizational culture, organizational strengths and weaknesses and environmental opportunities and threats are created.
۲٫ Failures of process: the failures imply on poor management on different stages of strategic planning, such as inadequate participation of the main forces in strategic planning, lack of commitment of important and influential people to the implementation of the planned measures, focusing too much of planning on senior management level of the organization, delegating too much of planning activities to the forces and specialized units of planning and conversion of planning to goals instead of means (Rezaeian, 2009).
“Implementation of strategy” that is known as the practical stage of strategic management, the management on the forces during the operation. Implementation of strategy is an operational process that emphasizes on the efficiency, coordination between a large number of people and leadership skills (Rahnama et al., 2012). At this stage, it is required to consider the annual goals, define the organization’s policies, create tendency and motivation in staffs, allocate resources properly, design an effective organizational structure, take advantage of information systems and compensate services of employees. The main aspect of the implementation of strategies is that managers and employees are encouraged to work in the organization with fascination, pride and dedication, and do not spare no effort in achieving the defined objectives (David, 1999). Also measures to reduce the resistances that happen against changes, adapt managers with strategy, reinforce the culture that suport strategy, and adapt operational processes with strategy are thought (Nabizadeh Bahnamiri, 2012). If the strategies be formulated, but never run, the measure will be a vain act.
In strategic management, “evaluation of strategy” is considered the last stage. Evaluation of strategies is important due to today’s success can not guarantee tomorrow’s success, and the organization that is contented and satisfied to today, then it ignores tomorrow, and the organization is arrogant and proud and is doomed (David, 1999). Evaluation of strategy includes getting feedback on performance to implement well-done adopted plans and strategies and the organization achieve desired results. According to information obtained from the evaluation of implementation of strategy can solve the problems standing in the way and take appropriate corrective action (Nabizadeh Bahnamiri, 2012). To evaluate the strategies three major activities as follows are done:
۱٫ Review the internal and external factors that are the basis of current strategies.
۲٫ Calculate and Measure the performance.
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۳٫ Corrective actions. (David, 1999)
Mission of the organization: The most important part of the organization that is related to the nature of the organization is the organization’s mission, which is as a reason for existence of an organization, and this part causes difference between organizations (David, 1999). Mission Statement should have an insightful look and based on rational knowledge of how the organization should be changed in the future (Snyman & Kruger, 2004). The most important indicator to evaluate the mission statement is that to what extent its content is included the interests of stakeholders (Rezaeian, 2009).
External factors: The external factors or external opportunities and threats are the factors that affect the organization but outside the organization’s control, such as, economic, social, cultural, ecological, environmental, political, legal, governmental, technological and competitive events or trends and so on. These factors, however, are not under the control of the organization, but affect the long-term goals, and then on strategies, policies and performance of the organization (David, 1999). Organizations need to guide a competitive analysis to determine and analyze all the forces in their environment, which may have a profound impact on the organization’s ability to survival, growth and profitability. It is important to remember that the competence center of the hierarchy of existing values of the organization should be analyzed. Not only be analyzed, but also learning from the environment, should be considered as main objectives (Snyman & Kruger, 2004).
Internal factors: The factors that exist within the system, and affect the organization, and their characteristic is that they are under control. Internal factors are divided into two categories: strengths and weaknesses. The main activities of strategic management are identifying and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses within the organization and organizations implement the strategies to strengthen their strengths and remove their weaknesses (David, 1999). The competitive perspective (strategic management) is a reflection of that the strategy is determined by internal and external factors; then the superior and unique organizations in this way increase their value and then with creative ways emphasize on these values to achieve products and services (Tranfield, Denyer, & Burr, 2004).
In Figure 3 an overview of the analysis of “strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats” is shown.
Figure 3. The analysis of “strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats” (SWOT model) (Rezaeian, 2009)
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Long-term goals: The goals are specific results that the organization tries to achieve them in its mission. The long-term periods are the periods that are more than one year. In fact, long-term goals determine the direction of the organization, and help the organization for evaluating, collaborating, prioritizing, planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling the activities and creating motivation in the members of organization with an effective method (David, 1999). According to Pearce and Robinson (2000) the first stage of strategic guidance should be targeting; the goals to achieve future. This process should be throughout the organization and an interactive process. Goals must originate from a view with knowledge of internal and external forces of the organization (Snyman & Kruger, 2004). All researchers agree that goals should be accessible (Snyman & Kruger, 2004).
Strategy: A tool in the hand of the organization to achieve long-term goals. In other words, strategy is a contraption that organization uses during its activities to achieve intended long-term goals (David, 1999). Strategy defines business goals and mission targeted within the next time period (Tranfield, Denyer, & Burr, 2004).
Annual goals: The goals are short-term goals that organization adopts to achieve its long-term goals. Given that each long-term goal consists of a set of annual goals, in implementation of strategies, annual goals have a particular importance, while in formulation of strategies, long-term goals are important (David, 1999).
Policy: A tool for achieving annual goals, and includes guidelines, rules and procedures that the organization respects when making decisions to achieve the specified objectives. Organization with implementation of policies tries to create coordination and consistency within the organization and between units (David, 2007). In other words, policies are written guidelines that are developed by the organization (Snyman & Kruger, 2004).
Organizing: To achieve the goals, organizing is a necessary step, and with the help of this activity, the overall purpose and mission of the organization in the form of detailed objectives and tasks of units is fractured, and its realization is possible. In organizing, functions and powers and responsibilities of units and posts are determined, and how coordination and communication between them is specified. (Alvani, 2006) In other words, organizing is a step in the strategic management process, and stage of implement is to achieve the goals. In organizing the various sources of the organization, including human resources, financial resources, equipments, information and … are used optimally to achieve the specified goals with the maximum performance.
Among the assumptions of strategic management models, relative stability and confidence in the strategic factors and environmental conditions can be noted. Claim of the universality is another assumption of conventional models, and based on the claim can be said these models everywhere, with each intellectual and cultural system have compatibility, and they can help in drawing the strategies. Another assumption of these models is their prescription attitude to the strategic management process. (Ali Asgari and Mokbari, 2011)
An overview of the topic of Future studies:
Humans after World War II and the revelation of the fact that the growth of science and technology is along with dramatic changes and small changes can have big consequences, try
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to identify and use tools to avoid surprise in the face of hurricane of developments. One of these tools was future study, which from the 1940s entered to the think tanks and policy centers (Kashani, 2013). In other words, the need to be aware of the trend of changes and developments, caused the formation of a new scientific field called “future studies” or “Future study”. This science aspires to identify and understand the forces and factors, which cause fundamental changes in human life and arena of human life (Tabataba’i Yazdi, 2001).
In this section a few related terms are defined:
Divination: This means divination and necromancy. People in future study seek to identify the future (Manteghi, 2011).
Futurology: This means predicting the future and knowing what happens in the future (Manteghi, 2011), and ability to imagine the future through study, research or imagery. This attitude can be obtained by using of scientific methods, religious teachings or spiritual intuition (Fazel Ghanea, 2009).
Foresight: This means that according to the view of people, what should happen in the future be determined (Manteghi, 2011).
Future studies: The study process of probable futures through scientific methods. In the process, important steps include: identify the change, critique and analyze it, draw a desirable future and finally, planning and determining strategies to achieve it. One of the characteristics of future studies is the rationality that is in it, because the output of the futures studies process can be studied and judged with rational and reasonable principles and standards of human (Fazel Ghanea, 2009).
Two approaches in future study include:
۱٫ Forecasting: In this method, findings and data from the past periods and the present are studied and for form of future trends are used.
۲٫ Foresight: The quest for a universal human capacity that enables every individual to think about the future, review and create the future possibilities, and react against them. (Fazel Ghanea, 2009)
In another definition, Future study means “future studies”, which uses data collection and their analysis and applies scientific methods to open a window to the future. So, futurist attempts to identify and explore future events by using of scientific, intuitive and empirical methods and then uses scientific methods and appropriate for community culture to play a role in the creation of desirable futures. Futures Studies provides images that are classified in three categories: possible futures, probable futures and desirable future. (Manteghi, 2011)
Future study is a knowledge that teaches human, in facing with the uncertain future ahead, how has the lowest loss and achieves the most benefit. Future study accompanies human in the future path that is full of uncertainty and turbulence, and prepares human against unexpected events (Kashani, 2013). So, the most important reason that justifies future study science is uncertainty about the future. Foresight is a response to the challenges arising from changes and escape from admission the passivity. Also curiosity about the fate of human is another reason for future study. (Manteghi, 2011)
Concern of all futurists is avoid surprise and proactive role of people in the creation of the future and for this concern, firstly, Future study techniques properly must be promoted and prescribed, and secondly, futurists must introduce prominent effects of second-degree views resulting from applying a comprehensive and systemic look at issues in conducted projects of future study and record and spread their experiences. (Kashani, 2013)
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Futurists can use their knowledge to develop community development software, and with forecasting the conditions of change ahead, provide a context for individual characteristics improvement (Manteghi, 2011). Future study is a tool for sensitizing the managers of organizations about emerging issues and outside the organization before the organization face with the events. (Manteghi, 2011), and is a way that can estimate the ability of managers of organizations to affect future; it can provide a context that managers with predicting events increase their ability to respond to emerging opportunities. Results of future study allow individuals to measure and trade off their current demands with future demands. The studies in the discovery of trends from the past to present and also identifying and formulating future goals and trajectory to achieve them for the social sciences, as well as preparation and training for the future are very important (Mozaffari, 2009).
Future study is a pragmatic knowledge that seeks to identify the context for future behaviors and provide a solution (Manteghi, 2011). Two basic elements in future study are time and change and can be said that the main mission of future study is management on changes at different time scales (Kashani, 2013).
Future study includes the following objectives:
۱٫ Prepare vision and prioritize issues, it would cause to obtain a clear understanding of the opportunities and challenges of the future and have an active attitude in the face of future events.
۲٫ Explain, evaluate and formulate social standards; accordingly, people can evaluate and measure different futures.
۳٫ The commitment to future generations, by such a sense of responsibility, futurists are forced to defend the freedom and prosperity of future generations.
۴٫ Identify agents of change and transformation in society; futurists recognize the main cause of technological advances and changes in political, economic, social and cultural orders, and try to specify unexpected developments and beyond the control of human, which human has no choice and has to surrender in face with them.
۵٫ Addressing the present time, thinking about the future, to know what is the current task, because with current circumstances and future prospects, the desirable future is created.
To achieve these five objectives, futurists by studying images of the future, that exist in the minds of people, and also by analyzing the social index images, and their impact on rise and fall of civilizations, describe possible and probable trends, set goals and values, and by presenting different images of the future, offer alternative policies (Fazel Ghanea, 2009).
Assumed principles for future study include three principles as follows that are based on assumptions about the universe and the role of human:
۱٫ The relationship between past and present. According to this principle, the universe is integrated and not a blend of independent and unconnected components. Present Based on past has been formed, and then the future comes out from the present and the past. Because human, like all things, is a part of the universe, the future world is created from within the present world. Taking a look at world events in the past few years can be found a lot of points about the future.
۲٫ Element and vital elements. In future years with the horizon can not imagine major changes. Major changes occur in periods that are more than five years, which probably stem from today decisions. For this reason, Future study has time intervals between 5 to 50 years. Therefore, plans and objectives should be defined in the same period. However, today decisions constitute the world of tomorrow.
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۳٫ The importance of the ideas. The future must be discovered and developed; it should be possible to consider forward ideas that reflect possible future events because thinking of individuals is a combination of past perceptions, the current situation of life and mental images of possible future events. Ideas consist of two elements: 1) concepts and 2) theories. Concepts are indicative of a mind map or thought of something, while, theories talk about creating a relationship between two or more concepts to show how co-existence and behavior of them with each other. Thus, concepts and theories are the internal and subjective formations of how phenomenon’s work that by using of them can know past events and imagine future events in mind. So, thinking indicates skillful use of concepts and theories to to create a plan and find a way. By creating a certain imagination, possibility of creation of different concepts freely and fluid in the individual consciousness emerges. The formation of the future image in the mind of individuals, plays a major role in shaping the future. (Hamidi zadeh, 2011)
The tasks that are considered for a futurist include:
۱٫ Facing consciously with future trends in order to reduce the damages of surprise
۲٫ Correcting the current trends by looking ahead
۳٫ Trying to form a desirable future (Fazel Ghanea, 2009)
Techniques and methods that a futurist can use are as follows:
Techniques
Features
Monitoring Method
Continuous monitoring on global and regional changes in various fields based on different sources.
Trend Analysis
Studying a specified trend to discover what causes the incidence and rate of development and its probable consequences.
Trend Monitoring
Careful monitoring the current trends and important in a society, industry, or a specific part.
Trend Extrapolation
Orientation of future trends based on current trends and their changes.
Development and Analysis
Visualization and representation possible future events, based on knowledge and imagination.
Scripting
Understanding the possible consequences and results of decisions taken.
Consultation
Using of teamwork and consultation and take advantage of the views of others, especially experts.
Modeling
Recreating events with quantitative methods such as operation research, econometrics, system dynamics, mathematics and so on.
Simulation
Using images from the facts on the basis of static and dynamic models of the phenomenons.
Historical Analysis
Knowing past events and analyze their causes and explain a prospect for the possibility of their recurrence in the future.
Crisscross of Thoughts
Obtaining experts’ views on intended topics and issues based on logical arguments.
Prospect Making
Drawing the horizon and routes of consensus about an issue for the
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future to build unity of thought and practice.
Benchmarking Studies
Following complementary parts of affairs of the past and the present in the future.
Upstream Documents Study
Recognition and analysis of religious upstream texts and documents extracted from verses and sayings and explain the consequences and probable behavior based on obedience of the beliefs.
Identify Needs
Reviewing needs of individuals and communities from the perspective of views of experts and upstream documents of pure beliefs.
Source: (Hamidi Zadeh, 2011)
The relationship between planning and foresight
According to Tooies (1992) planning is human orientation to the future, solve problems in the future, divination and hope for the future. On planning for the future, there are two exploratory and normative general patterns that each of these patterns from a certain angle looks at the future and how to achieve it:
۱٫ Exploratory pattern: in this pattern, the future is as a causal result of the past, and there is a hidden determinism in it, the result of the look at future is the inevitable and constant future, that date in accordance with its rules, will convert present to the future. In this pattern, the human is just outside observer that can only explore the inevitable future. This pattern is based on forecast, and explore the future is only its logical conclusion. In this pattern, planning action starts from the present toward the future, and tries to discover in different situations, what happen in the future.
۲٫ Normative pattern: In this pattern, human power considered in building the future, and human changes his outside observer position, and encounters with the concept of building the future. In this pattern, unlike the exploratory pattern, there is no hidden determinism, but human is completely free to choose the direction of his life. The point of planning in this pattern by selecting one or more particular situation in future time starts, and with retrospective approach of the future to today, planning begins. (Balali, 2012)
Conclusion:
There are similarities and differences between future study and strategic management. The most important similarity is that both strategic management and future study research about the future and its related issues. Although these overlap at some levels, but should not be used interchangeably. In future study, in addition to identifying trends and future challenges, usually three different modes for long-term future are considered: possible future, probable future, desirable future. While in strategic planning with the help of management knowledge and by using of identification practices of environment, to achieve a desirable future, planning is done. Futurist helps to planning, but does not plan. Futurist draws future, while, strategic planners according to the position design the way to achieve it. In strategic planning by studying internal strengths and weaknesses and external threats and opportunities, stable and predicted conditions for organizational abilities and environmental changes are assumed. But in future study, by using of available information and the power of creativity, the future position is drawn, so that, motion kind and program are formulated. In other words, in future
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study a scheme of future is drawn so that planners can design the way to achieve it (Manteghi, 2011). In strategic management and planning, managers start from the present and move toward the future. In other words, they move to the outside and in different situations try to discover what happens in the future. So the starting point of the future is often in the present. But in future study, Planning is inward, ie by selecting one or more specific goal or situation in the future, planning begins. After determining the starting point in the future, with traditional planning approach, from the future to the present, planning begins. This is the reason why this approach is called “exploratory”, the strategists, first go to the horizon of the future, and with presence in this horizon and monitoring on the present and past set and define the ways for architecture of development from the future to the present (Manteghi, 2011).
Thus, the relationship between future study and strategic management is a close relationship because strategic management based on factors affecting the internal and external environments, plans the way to achieve the goals and mission and it is in fact a foresight based on future study, because the way to achieve desirable goals is specified. Undoubtedly the most decisive factor for the effectiveness of strategies is understanding the true image of the future, such a thing is possible only through future study (Assarian Nejad, 2007). On the other hand, strategic management is the way to achieve the desirable future that through future study has been drawn.
Now that the strategic management issues and future study were raised, it is found that between them there is a relationship. Strategic Management according to the organization’s mission and taking into account external and internal factors of organization specifies the organization’s long-term goals. The goals that cause organization’s efforts to achieve them be in the same direction, and the organization’s future and its survival depends on access to these goals. The long-term goals are the desirable future of organization that it was mentioned in the discussion of future study. In other words, long-term goals should be set with a foresight and future study. In the discussion of future study, it was emphasized that future study should be done based on scientific methods and by taking into account variables influencing the future. In fact, external and internal factors outlined in strategic management are important variables in future study, which by considering these factors, the future is predicted and desirable future is build. Then, based on done future study, appropriate long-term goals, strategies and annual goals are specified, then is the stage of implement to achieve long-term goals or desirable future, and finally, evaluation for revision or correction the strategies or implementation of strategies is done .
Finally, it is concluded that the application of future study in strategic management is in determining the long-term goals of organization based on the external and internal factors.
In the Islamic Republic of Iran, the most important and the first document of strategic and futuristic thinking of Iran is Iran’s 2025 perspective document, which is in fact a long-term goal that has been formulated based on the variables affecting within the country, internal potentials, important factors in abroad and international relations. Perspective document draws the position of Iran over two decades which is the desirable future of Iran: “With reliance on the power of God and in the light of faith and national commitment and planned and collective thoughtful effort, and in the realization path of ideals and principles of the
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constitution, in the twenty-year perspective, Iran is a developed country with the first position in economic, science and technology in the region, with Islamic and revolutionary identity, inspiring in the Muslim world, and with constructive and effective interaction in international relations” (Iran’s 2025 perspective document).
With regard to this noble goal, governmental, public and private organizations, based on the mission that have defined for themselves and by using of strategic thinking, should take advantage of the environmental facilities and opportunities and be safe against environmental threats, and identify and consolidate their strengths and overcome their internal problems; and by using of appropriate strategies that plan for themselves help the country in order to achieve this goal.
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Special Issue
April 2016
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES AND
CULTURAL STUDIES ISSN 2356-5926
http://www.ijhcs.com/index.php/ijhcs/index Page 722
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